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Philippians 2:4

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The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.

Mahatma Gandhi

 

Experimental Design Review

Practice what you know

Some advice:
keep the flame of curiosity and wonderment alive,
even when studying for boring exams.
That is the well from which we scientists draw our nourishment and energy.
And also, learn the math.
Math is the language of nature, so we have to learn this language.

Michio Kaku

Know the Vocabulary:
Independent Variable
what is being tested by the scientist; the difference between groups; the "cause" of a change
Dependent Variable
the "effect" caused by the independent variable; what is observed and measured
Controlled Variable
factors that are not allowed to change; controlled by the scientist; allow for a fair test
Manipulated
another name for the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Responding
another name for the DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Constants
another name for CONTROLLED VARIABLES
Variables
factors that can change during an experimental investigation
Experimental Investigation
an investigation that involves the manipulation and control of variables
Descriptive Investigations
investigations based on observations
Hypothesis
an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variable
Observe
to carefully explore all of the properties or characteristics of an object or phenomenon
Inference
deductions based on observations; interpretations of observations
Fair Test
an investigation in which you change only one factor (variable) and keep all other conditions the same
Qualitative Observations
hard to measure, count, or describe using numbers; describes the characteristics (or qualities) of something
Descriptive Observations
can be expressed in numbers; can be counted or measured
Data
observations and measurements made during scientific investigations
Bar Graph
show comparisons of data with discreet categories

Line Graph

for continuous data; shows changes; shows relationships between two variables or sets of data
Prediction
an educated guess
Types of Research:

DESCRIPTIVE

  1. Answers scientific questions through observation
  2. Sometimes called qualitative research

EXPERIMENTAL

  1. Answers scientific questions by manipulating and controlling variables
Types of Variables:

Independent variables (sometimes called manipulated variables)

  • The variable that is changed by the scientist
  • What is being tested
  • The difference between experimental groups
  • Tthe cause of the change in the dependent variable

Dependent variables (sometimes called responding variables)

  • The variable that is being observed and measured
  • The data that is collected
  • The 'effect' of the independent variable

Controlled variables (sometimes called constants)

  • The variables that are not allowed to change; those that are controlled by the scientists
  • Variables that stay the same
  • Allow the experiment to be a fair test

Control groups

  • Sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it
  • Provide a comparison group
Watch a movie to Review:

Watch a movie to review:

MP4 version

WMV version

Watch a movie to review:
See the Connections:
On the Web:

Fair test video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CFxO-p3WQOo

Read about variables & a fair test - http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_experiment_fair_test.shtml

How to make a bar graph (lokk at the simple bar graph) - http://www.ncsu.edu/labwrite/res/gh/gh-bargraph.html

Watch a video about bar graphs - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PM39_HA1qSc

How to make a line graph - http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/math4/d/linegraph4l.

     
Review variables HERE.
More notes about variables HERE.
Even more notes HERE.

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